IJBST 2020 Volume 13 Issue 1
International Journal of BioSciences and Technology (IJBST)
Antibacterial Activity and Protein Sequences of Actinomycetes Isolated from Coastal Area of Niger Delta against Human and Fish Pathogens
Ebele L. Okoye , Bright O. Uba and Chidinma E. Onwunyili
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IJBST (2020), 13(1):1-17
Ebele L. Okoye, Bright O. Uba, & Chidinma E. Onwunyili. (2020). Antibacterial Activity and Protein Sequences of Actinomycetes Isolated from Coastal Area of Niger Delta against Human and Fish Pathogens. International Journal of Biosciences and Technology (IJBST) ISSN: 0974-3987, 13(1), 1–17. http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3617213
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Actinomycetes are known to produce potential secondary metabolites which possess biological activity. This knowledge spurred the present study in which the antibacterial activity and protein sequences of Actinomycetes isolated from Coastal Area of Niger Delta against human and fish pathogens were evaluated. Marine sediment and water samples were collected from ten (10) different points from Onne light flow terminal seaport located in Eleme Local Government Area of Rivers State, Nigeria. A total of fifteen (15) Actinomycetes were isolated on Modified Glycerol Starch Casein Nitrate Agar using spread plate technique. All the isolates were characterized and identified using standard procedures. The API system of identification used revealed that thirteen of the isolates belong to the genus Streptomyces while two belong to the genus Actinomyces. The isolated marine Actinomycetes were screened for their antibacterial activities against four human bacterial pathogens namely:- Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhi and Shigella dysenteriae and four fish bacterial pathogens:- Staphylococcus aureus P1, Vibrio sp. MF2, Salmonella sp. and Vibrio sp. S1. The antibacterial screening revealed that amongst the fifteen (15) isolates, ten (10) showed inhibitory activities against the human pathogens while fourteen (14) strains showed inhibitory activities against the fish pathogens. The two most potent isolates were ATS-3 and ATS-1 which were both identified as Steptomyces lavendulae. ATS-3 showed the highest inhibitory activity against S. dysenteriae (30.00 ± 0.25 mm) and lowest activity against S. aureus (10.00 ± 0.16 mm) while ATS-1 strain showed highest inhibitory activity against Vibro sp. S1 (25.00 ± 5.20 mm) and lowest inhibitory activity against S. aureus P1 (11.00 ± 2.24 mm). Their inhibitory activities were statistically significant with P values less than 0.05 (P<0.05). The protein profiling of the partially purified whole cell proteins of ATS-3 and ATS-1 on SDS-PAGE exhibited apparent lower and upper molecular weights of 71.7 kDa and 47.5 kDa and 70.4 kDa and 41.16 kDa respectively. The result of the taxonomic correctional analysis revealed that the protein sequences of the two strains were closely related to each other with 80 % similarities suggesting that the strains belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Thus, the fact that majority of Actinomycetes strains (66.67 %) in the studied area produced potential bioactive compounds against the human and fish bacterial pathogens studied revealed that the marine actinomcycetes from the Onne light flow terminal seaport could serve as potential sources of novel antibiotics.
Keywords: Actinomycetes, Antibacterial activity, Fish pathogens, Human pathogens, Coastal area, Niger Delta.
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