Dr. Pradeep Kumar G.
1. General Biographical Informations
NAME : PRADEEP KUMAR G.
DATE AND PLACE OF BIRTH : 1 Aug 1962, CHUNAKARA, KERALA, INDIA
NATIONALITY/CITIZENSHIP : INDIAN
MARITAL STATUS : MARRIED, TWO DAUGHTERS
BUSINESS ADDRESS : Scientist-F
Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology
TRIVANDRUM-14, KERALA, INDIA
PIN- 695 014.
Telephone: +91 (471) 234 7975
+91 (471) 234 8104
Fax: +91 (471) 234 8096
PRIVATE ADDRESS : SRA-125A
Telefax:+91 (471) 236 2633
Designation : Scientist-F (Professor-level)
Affiliation : Rajiv Gandhi Center for Biotechnology
Trivandrum-14, Kerala, India.
Duration : 15 April 2004-present
Lecturer (Asst. Professor) : 1989‑1994
School of Life Sciences, DA University
Sr. Lecturer : 1994-1998
School of Life Sciences, DA University
Reader (Associate Professor) : 1998-2004
School of Life Sciences, DA University
Details of the following degrees
University Year of Award Topic of Dissertation
MA/M.Sc Univ Kerala 1984 Zoology
Ph.D. DA University 1989 A Biophysical Study
Of Sperm Membranes
Qualified in National Educational Testing conducted by University Grants Commission, New Delhi, India, in 1984
Qualified in Junior Research Fellowship Examination of Council of Scientific & Industrial Research, New Delhi, India, in 1984.
Recepient of an International Post-Doctoral Fellowship award from The Rockefeller Foundation, New York, USA, in 1994.
Visiting Scientist Fellowship from National Institute of Health, Bethesda, MD to work in University of Florida during 1999-2002.
Recipient of National Bioscience Award for Career Development 2006-2007 from Department of Biotechnology, Govt. of India.
Held a Rockefeller Foundation-sponsored FELLOW-IN-RESIDENCE position at Center For Biomedical Research, The Rockefeller University, USA during 1994-1996.
Post-Doctoral Fellow at University of Virginia, 1996.
Visiting Faculty at University of Florida School of Medicine during 2000-2002.
Area of Specialization Molecular Biology of Sperm Development
Areas of Interest
Biophysical and Molecular aspects of Gamete development in mammals
Cell-cell interaction with emphasis on sperm-oocyte interaction
Molecular aspects of cell communication and cell death
Major contribution of Dr. Pradeep Kumar (in 200 words)
Dr. Pradeep Kumar G has elucidated programmed fusogenic biophysical alterations in sperm membranes during post-testicular developmental phase of male gametes, which are mandatory for fertility. While a part of the development occurs in the male reproductive tract, the changes that occur outside the male body could be simulated in the laboratory. The fusion responses are protein-mediated, but the critical proteins are associated with mobile packed domains within the sperm and are identified as microdomains called RAFTS. He has identified aberrant membrane architecture in spermatozoa from infertile human males, and this was correlated with disturbances in spatio-temporal organization of a non-mitochondrial NOX system. He has shown that protein exchange between RAFT and non-RAFT subdomains is critical in defining cell functions. His group has identified a few critical molecules involved in deciding sperm competence in human males, which are notably absent or underrepresented in infertile individuals. He is looking into the molecular mechanisms that drive indefinite germline stem cell proliferation in the testis, and factors that determine the differentiation of germline stem cells into spermatocytes. Since primary spermatocytes are the only cells having the capacity to divide meiotically, he is also addressing the molecular aspects of meiotic switching in these cells. He has contributed substantially in understanding molecular defects in spermatozoa from a subset of infertile human males, which might help us understand and manage human male factor infertility.
Highlights of Dr. Pradeep Kumar’s research during the past five years
During the past 5 years, Dr. Pradeep Kumar G had been focusing on proteome profiling of spermatozoa from human subjects with established fertility, which was being compared with the proteome from the spermatozoa of individuals suffering from primary spermatogenic disorder (subsets of oligozoospermia and azoospermia) and idiopathic (no known cause assigned for infertility) infertility cases. These studies have identified defects in the expression of a few genes associated with human male factor infertility. Investigations were also done to examine the expression of homologous gene(s) in mouse germ-line and to establish the feasibility of the use of mouse as a model system to study sperm proteome during epididymal maturation. He undertook elaborate investigations on non-mitochndrial NOX, protocadherin, vamp, SNAP and tctex. All these genes are specifically testis-expressed. He characterized the subunit structure of a non-mitochondrial NOX associated with the sperm head membranes. This NOX is p22-independent, and sequencing results indicated that the core protein has EF-hands at the N-terminus (Shukla et al., 2005). Thus, this molecule is calcium-regulated. Full length sequencing of NOX message is under way to determine the number of EF repeats at the N-terminus of this protein. His studies have located NOX on the spermatozoa associated with membrane RAFTS. He has observed RAFT reorganizations in spermatozoa with specific protein import into and export out of membrane RAFTs as a result of transmembrane signaling during sperm development (Shoeb et al, 2004). He is evaluating the mechanisms of calcium-dependent functionality of NOX complex and organizational aspects of RAFT-associated proteins in relation to gamete development.
Another major observation from his laboratory is the expression defects in protocadherin in a subset of human male factor infertility cases. Protocadherin is a Y-linked gene, and has been sequenced and the sequence submitted to the genebank. He has already published aberrant expression profiles of protocadherin in human males with oligozoospermia and idiopathic infertility syndromes. Since cadherins comprise a family of calcium-dependent glycoproteins that function in mediating cell-cell adhesion in virtually all solid tissues of multicellular organisms, he examined the presence of a cadherin on spermatozoon and its possible involvement in sperm-oocyte interaction. Spermatozoa from fertile human subjects showed the presence E-cadherin on its head domains, detectable only after permeabilization of the surface membranes. On the contrary, spermatozoa from oligozoospermic subjects did not possess E-cadherin on their principal acrosomal and equatorial domains. Immunoprecipitation and western blot studies also showed the presence of E-cadherin in spermatozoa from fertile males and its absence in oligozoospermic males. Using RT-PCR, we detected E-cadherin message in the round cells of fertile males, which was absent in the cells from oligozoospermic males. The presence of anti-E-cadherin antibody brought about quantitative reduction in the sperm-oocyte binding in vitro. These observations indicate the possibility of the interplay of a cadherin-dependent homophilic and/or heterophilic adhesion interaction between spermatozoa and oocyte during fertilization. The absence of a key adhesion molecule in a human male infertility disorder points towards genetic defects causing failure in gamete interactions (Purohit et al., 2004). He has started investigations on the expression profile of protocadherin in germ cell lineage in relation to their development using testicular biopsies of infertile human males.
TCTEX is another testis-expessed and differentially displayed protein identified by Dr. Pradeep Kumar. TCTEX gene has been sequenced to full length and cloned. Computational modeling has suggested its role in protein trafficking, and he is currently characterizing the interactome associcated with TCTEX in normal human spermatozoa. CLP-1, one of the testis-expressed cyclin-like molecules (CLP-1) has been sequenced and cloned. Both these sequences are deposited in the genebank.
He has initiated activities to identify and sort germline stem cells (pluripotent) from testicular biopsies. His group is working on differentiating these cells into germline and non-germline cells under in vitro conditions, which may have therapeutic applications.
Total No. of Research Papers published in Peer-reviewed Journals
Chapters in Books 01
Genes Sequences submitted 25
Protein sequences submitted 33
Total No. of articles published during the past 5 years 18
Activators of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases (ACDK). U.S. Patent No. 7,033,816
1. National Congress organized by Indian Society of Plant Physiology at Devi Ahilya University, Indore in 1994
2. International Congress on Fertilization, Embryo Development and Implantation, held at National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, 6-9 November, 2000.
3. International Conference on Steroid Hormone Receptor Mediated Signaling (SHRMS) held at Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Trivandrum, 25-27 November, 2004.
4. National Seminar on Bioinformatics organized by Distributed Information Sub Center (DISC) at Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Trivandrum, 14-16 December, 2004.
5. National Workshop on Nanoscale Imaging and Detection of Biomolecules at Anna University, Chennai, 17th-19th March, 2005.
6. Health improvement through Plant Biotechnology. Plant Biotechnology-New Vistas in Health Applications. BRSI Second Convention, Anna University, Chennai on 25-27 November 2005.
7. Scientific aspects of gene cloning. Regional Seminar on The Social, Scientific and Ethical Implications of Gene Cloning. NSS College for Women, Neeramankara, Trivandrum and University Grants Commission, New Delhi. 12-14 July, 2006.
8. Gene cloning. Science day at St. Thomas School, Mukkolakkal, Trivandrum, 2006.
9. Expression and silencing of genes. National Seminar on Gene Technology for Society. Department of Botany and Biotechnology, Mar Ivanios College, Trivandrum. 2 November, 2006.
10. Translational Repromics in contraceptive development. XXV National Symposium on Reproductive Biology and Comparative Endocrinology and University of Kerala, Trivandrum. 15-17 January, 2007
11. Cloning: Dolly and beyond. Science day at St. Thomas School, Mukkolakkal, Trivandrum, 2006.
12. Proteomics in Biology and Medicine. Science day at St. Berckman’s College, Chanagacherry, 2007
13. Germline stem cells and their prospects.
14. Proteomics in Medicine. National Seminar on Medical Biotechnology, SVVM College, Adoor, 2007
Participation in conferences, Seminars, Workshops
1. Society of General and Comparative Endocrinology meeting at Delhi University, 1988.
2. Endocrine Society Conference, Kyoto, Japan, 1988.
3. Society of Free Radical Biology and Medicine at Bangalore, September 1989.
4. 51st Annual Meeting of The American Society of Human Genetics, San Diego, CA, USA, October 19-23, 2001.
5. 23rd Meeting of the American Society of Reproductive Immunology at Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA, 18th-21st June, 2003.
6. National Seminar on Bioinformatics organized by Distributed Information Sub Center (DISC) at Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Trivandrum, 14-16 December, 2004.
7. Co-Chairman, Life Science Session at XVII Kerala Science Congress held at Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, 29-31 January 2005.
8. National Workshop on Nanoscale Imaging and Detection of Biomolecules at Anna University, Chennai, 17th-19th March, 2005.
9. Shoeb M, Laloraya M and Kumar PG (2005) Formation of RAFT microdomains in sperm membranes during progesterone-induced acrosome reaction. Poster presented at ISCE 2005 – National Symposium on Comparative Endocrinology and Reproductive Physiology at University of Delhi on November 17-19, 2005.
10. Health improvement through Plant Biotechnology. Plant Biotechnology-New Vistas in Health Applications. BRSI Second Convention, Anna University, Chennai on 25-27 November 2005.
11. International Symposium on translational research: Apoptosis and Cancer. 18th to 21st December, 2005.
12. Shoeb M, Laloraya M and Kumar PG (2006) TRPCs are recruited thorugh RAFT-dependent mechanisms in spdrmatozoa during their post-testicular development. Poster accepted at Biochemical Society Conference on Cell and Molecular Biology of TRP Channels at University of bath, UK on September 7-8, 2006.
13. Shoeb M, Laloraya M and Kumar PG (2006) NOX-components are associated with sperm membrane RAFTS. Poster accepted at Gordon Research Conference on NOX Family NADPH Oxidases at Les Diablerets, Switzerland on October 15-20, 2006.
14. Seminar on Biotechnology and Economic Development – A Kerala Scenario. Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Trivandrum, Kerala. March 26-26, 2006.
15. International Symposium on Drug Abuse and HIV/AIDS. Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Trivandrum. November 6-7, 2006.
16. Shoeb M, Laloraya M and Kumar PG (2007) Estrogen receptors are associated with sperm membrane rafts. Poster presented in the XXV National Symposium on Reproductive Biology and Comparative Endocrinology, 15-17 January, 2007. Trivandrum.
17. Chandran U, Laloraya M and Kumar PG (2007) Identification of testis expressed cell cycle regulating proteins with special reference to meiosis. Poster presented in the XXV National Symposium on Reproductive Biology and Comparative Endocrinology, 15-17 January, 2007. Trivandrum. (won 1st prize in poster presentation category)
Details of Research Guidance/Professional Consultancy, if any
M.Sc Dissertation mentored 5
M. Phil Dissertations mentored 2
Total PhDs awarded 7
PhD thesis being mentored 6
Post-doctoral associates trained 3
Membership or Fellowship of Professional/Academic Bodies, Socieities, etc. Give details.
Member, American Association for Advancement of Science, New York
Member, American Society for Human Genetics
Sponsored Grants completed : 8
Sponsored Grants currently running : 5
Pending : 4
Reveiwer of Journals
The American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry
Current Opinions in Biology
Journal of Membrane Biology
Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry
Journal of Plant Physiology
Reviewer of Funding agencies
Department of Science and Technology, India
Department of Biotechnology, India
Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, India
Department of Atomic Energy, India
The United States - Israel Binational Science Foundation (BSF), USA
Neea Mary Thomas
Rahul Das M
1. Baby A (2003) Expression and functional evaluation of MC32 in the testis and germ cells in mouse and human.
2. Shah A (2004) Blue light induced organizational alteration of phox-components in wheat coleoptile tip
3. Renjini AP (2005) Characterization of spac1 associated with goat spermatozoa
4. Mandal P (2006) Detection of Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule (VCAM) and Testis-Specific G-Protein Coupled Receptor (TSGPCR) on goat spermatozoa
5. Reshmi (2006) Profiling the expression of p40phox in goat testicular germ cells
6. Remya Murali (2006) Characterization of a clone bearing the full length sequence of a 26 kDa protein
7. Anoop Bhaskar (2007) Evaluation of the expression of E-cadherin in goat spermatozoa
8. Rahul Das M (2007) Identification and partial characterization of goat testicular Autoimmune Regulator (gtAIRE)
9. Blessy (2007)
1. Seerwani N (1990) Involvement of superoxide anion radical and superoxide dismutase in testosterone biosynthesis. Devi Ahilya University, Indore.
2. Tillo N (1990) Effect of free radicals on physical properties of erythrocyte membranes. Devi Ahilya University, Indore.
1. Singh A (1993) Role of free radicals and superoxide dismutase in the modulation of sperm membrane conformation. Devi Ahilya University, Indore.
2. Sinha S (1994) Biochemical and biophysical studies of human spermatozoa with special reference to oligospermia. Devi Ahilya University, Indore.
3. Singh PP (1995) Iodine activation, peripheral conversion of thyroxine to triiodothyronine and biological alterations in thyroid follicular membranes with special reference to temperature in Columba livia. Devi Ahilya University, Indore.
4. Suvro Chatterjee (1999) Biophysical and biochemical perturbations in spermatozoa during infertility induction in males. Devi Ahilya University, Indore.
5. Sharad Purohit (2000) Distribution of surface saccharides and egg binding proteins on the surface of sperm cells of normal and oligospermic human subjects. Devi Ahilya University, Indore.
6. Deeksha Saxena (2002) Characterization of implantation specific proteins and protein encoding genes in the mouse uterus. Devi Ahilya University, Indore.
7. Kumar Chandrakuntal (2004) Blue light signal transduction in plant coleoptile tips: involvement of active oxygen species in phototropism. Devi Ahilya Unviersity, Indore.
8. Brahma Raju M (2002-present) Evaluation of the role of testis expressed proteins with reference to sperm development and fertilization
1. Mohammad Shoeb (2002- present) Identification and characterization of membrane lipid rafts in mammalian spermatozoa.
2. Ambika Chandrashekhar (2005-present) Molecular and functional characterization of testis expressed Nox5 in relation to sperm development
3. Uma Chandran (2005-present) Identification of testis expressed cell cycle regulating molecules with special reference to meiosis
4. Indu S (2006-present) Identification and functional evaluation of factors regulating testicular germ line stem cell division and differentiation.
5. Bhagya KP (2007)
1. Dr. Manish Nivsarkar 1990
2. Dr. Sunita Shukla 1998-1999, 2002-2006
3. Dr. Kumar Chandrakuntal 2004-2005
4. Dr. Anugya Mehta 2006
1. Insect pest management through secondary plant metabolites: control of forest pest and mosquitoes (Funded by MP Council of Science and Technology, Bhopal, India). Duration: 1988-1991.
2. Studies on the isolation, purification and structural and functional characterization of Fc receptors from mammalian sperm (funded by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi, India). Duration: 1990-1992.
3. Free radical modulation of the physico-chemical architecture of mammalian sperm membranes and the molecular aspects of sperm-zona pellucida interaction (funded by Department of Science and Techology, New Delhi, India). Duration: 1992-1995.
4. Active oxygen intermediates in female reproduction and the physico-chemical aspects of membrane configuration as a consequence of oxidative mechanisms at implantation (funded by Department of Science and Techology, New Delhi, India). Duration: 1992-1995.
5. Isolation, purification and characterization of a transiently appearing endometrial adhesion molecule (EAM) in the mouse (funded by Department of Atomic Energy, Bombay, India). Duration: 1992-1995
6. Biophysical and immunological aspects of the perturbations in post-vasectomy spermatozoa and its relation in irreversibility of fertility (funded by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi). Duration: 1996-2000.
7. Characterization of A/V CAM from human spermatozoa and its involvement in normal human fertility (funded by Department of Biotechnology, New Delhi, India). Duration: 2000-2004.
8. Charactrization of 54 kilodalton uterine protein and its involvement in early pregnancy (funded by University Grants Commission, New Delhi, India). Duration: 2002-2005.
1. Identification of superoxide generating machinery in mammalian spermatozoa (funded by Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, India). Duration: 2003-2006.
2. Mechanism of activation of NADPH Oxidase in blue-light signal transduction reactions in the coleoptile tip (Department of Science and Technology, New Delhi, India). 2004-2007.
3. Evaluation of the expression of a sterility locus gene TCTEX-1 and its relation with protein trafficking in spermatozoa from infertile and fertile human males (BRNS, Bombay). Duration: 2006-2009.
4. Characterization of RAFTS and RAFT-associated proteins of spermatozoa during capacitation and acrosome reaction. (Department of Biotechnology, New Delhi). 2006-2009.
5. Cloning, expression and semiquantitative analysis of protocadherins in human germ cells (CSIR, New Delhi) 2006-2009.
1. Structural reorganizations in lipid protein crystals of sperm membranes during capacitation and acrosome reaction (submitted to CSIR, New Delhi).
2. Identification of critical components modulating male fertility using high throughput genomic and proteomic tools (submitted to The Wellcome Trust, UK)
3. Evaluation of human idiopathic male infertility employing sperm proteomics assays (submitted to CONRAD, Virginia, USA).
1. Laloraya, M., Kumar GP and Laloraya, M.M. (1988) Changes in the levels of superoxide radical and superoxide dismutase during the estrous cycle of Rattus norvegicus and induction of superoxide dismutase by activity by lutropin. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 157(1), 146‑153.
2. Kumar GP, Laloraya, M., Agrawal, P. and Laloraya, M.M. (1989) The involvement of surface sugars of mammalian spermatozoa in epididymal maturation and in vitro sperm‑zona recognition. Andrologia. 22(2), 179‑183.
3. Laloraya, M., Kumar GP and Laloraya, M.M. (1989) Histochemical study of superoxide in the ovary of the rat during the oestrous cycle. J. Reprod. Fertil. 86(2), 583‑587.
4. Kumar GP, Laloraya, M. and Laloraya, M.M. (1989) Coupling of a proton pump with superoxide radical‑superoxide dismutase systems in mammalian spermatozoa and its association with sperm motility. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 161(2), 771‑775.
5. Laloraya, M., Kumar GP and Laloraya, M.M. (1989) A possible role of superoxide anion radical in the process of blastocyst implantation in Mus musculus. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 161(2), 762‑770.
6. Kumar GP, Laloraya, M. and Laloraya, M.M. (1989) The effect of some of the polyphenolic compounds on sperm motility in vitro: a structure‑activity relationship. Contraception., 39, 531‑539.
7. Kumar GP, Laloraya, M. and Laloraya, M.M. (1990) Powerful anti‑sperm motility action of cobaltous ion and its recovery by a sulfhydryl compound. Contraception 41, 633‑639
8. Laloraya M, Kumar GP, Nivsarkar M and Laloraya MM (1990) Localization of superoxide dismutase in the ovary and uterus of imcce during pregnancy with special reference to steroidogenesis and implantation. Acta Histochem. et Cytochem. 23(3), 271‑279.
9. Verma S, Kumar GP, Laloraya M, Singh A, Nivsarkar M and Bharti S (1990) Discovery of a novel and alternate hydrogen peroxide generation machinery in the mammalian thyroid gland that modulates iodination of tyrosine. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 169(1), 1‑7.
10. Verma S, Kumar GP, Laloraya M and Singh A (1990) Activation of iodine into a free radical intermediate by superoxide: A physiologically significant step in the iodination of tyrosine. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 170(3), 1026‑103.
11. Kumar GP, Tillo M, Laloraya M, Nivsarkar M, Verma S and Singh A (1990) Superoxide anion radical induces lipid phase transitions that mimics temperature induced phase transition phenomena of membrane lipids. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 172(2), 601‑607.
12. Kumar GP, Seerwani N, Laloraya M, Nivsarkar M, Verma S and Singh A (1990) Superoxide dismutase as a regulatory switch in mammalian testicular steroidogenesis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 173(1), 302‑308.
13. Sinha S, Kumar GP, Laloraya M and Warikoo D (1991) Overexpression of superoxide dismutase and lack of surface thiols in spermatozoa: Inherent defects in oligospermia. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 174(2), 510‑519.
14. Nivsarkar M, Kumar GP, Laloraya M and Laloraya MM (1991) Superoxide dismutase in the anal gills of the larvae of mosquito Aedes aegyptii : its inhibition by alpha‑terthienyl. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 16(4), 249‑255.
15. Kumar GP, Laloraya M and Laloraya MM (1991) Superoxide radical level and superoxide dismutase activity changes in maturing mammalian spermatozoa. Andrologia 23(2), 171‑175.
16. Laloraya M, Kumar GP and Laloraya MM (1991) Changes in the superoxide anion radical and superoxide dismutase levels in the uterus of Rattus norvegicus during the estrous cycle and a possible for superoxide radical in uterine oedema and cell proliferation at proestrous. Biochem. Cell Biol. 69, 313‑316.
17. Verma S, Kumar GP, Laloraya M, Nivsarkar M and Singh A (1991) Superoxide dismutase activation in thyroid and suppression in adrenal : Novel pituitary regulatory routes. FEBS Letters 282(2), 310‑312.
18. Singh A, Kumar GP, Laloraya M, Verma S and Nivsarkar M (1991) Superoxide activity regulation by spermine : A new dimension in spermine biochemistry and sperm development. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 177(1), 420‑426.
19. Nivsarkar M, Kumar GP, Laloraya M and Laloraya MM (1991) Superoxide dismutase inactivation by alpha‑terthienyl : A novel observation in thiophene photochemistry. Pesticide Biochem. Physiol. 41(1), 53‑59.
20. Kumar GP, Sinha S, Laloraya M and Nivsarkar M (1991) Enhanced axial symmetry at the Fe(III)‑heme centre of peroxidase by ascorbate : A basis for the ascorbate dependent peroxidase action. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 180(2), 597‑601.
21. Nivsarkar M, Kumar GP, Laloraya M and Laloraya MM (1992) Generation of superoxide anion radical by alpha‑terthienyl in the anal gills of mosquito larvae Aedes aegyptii : A new aspect in alpha terthienyl phototoxicity. Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol. 19(4) 261‑270.
22. Purohit S, Kumar GP, Laloraya M, Bharti S and Laloraya MM (1992) ABA‑induced lipid melting and its reversal by umbelliferone in the plasmalemma of the guard cell protoplast : A breakthrough in plant hormone‑receptor binding and hormone action. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 182(2), 652‑658.
23. Nivsarkar M, Kumar GP, Laloraya M and Laloraya MM (1993) Effect of ultraviolet activated alpha terthienyl upon anal gill membranes of mosquito larvae : A spin label study. Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 21(4), 441‑447.
24. Kumar GP (1993) Lipid phase transitions and a possible lipid‑protein lattice structure as an activity regulator in maturing spermatozoa. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. 29(6), 1029‑1038.
25. Jain S, Thomas M, Kumar GP and Laloraya M (1993) Programmed lipid peroxidation of biomembranes generating kinked phospholipids permitting local molecular mobility : A peroxidative theory of fluidity management. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 195(2), 574‑580.
26. Sinha S., Kumar GP and Laloraya M (1993) Methyl xanthines and altered biomembrane dynamics: Demonstration of protein mobility and enzyme inhiibition by caffeine in sperm model system. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. 31(6), 1141‑1148.
27. Chatterjee S, Laloraya M and Kumar GP (1993) Exorbitantly enhanced protein gyration and erroneous membrane modification programs in spermatozoa after vasectomy: A biophysical basis for low fertility revival after vasectomy. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 197(2), 450‑456.
28. Sinha S, Kumar GP and Laloraya M (1993) The topography of thiol‑distribution on sperm surface: A sensitive marker for human fertility diagnosis. Clinica Chimica Acta. 225, 83‑84.
29. Sinha S, Kumar GP and Malini Laloraya (1994) Abnormal physical architecture of the lipophilic domains of human sperm membrane in oligospermia: a logical cause for low fertility profiles. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 198(1), 266‑273.
30. Thomas M, Kumar GP and Laloraya M (1994) Transient thiol expression and thiol‑disulphide cluster‑receptor communications ‑ a molecular basis for blastocyst‑uterine interactions. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 198(1), 150‑157.
31. Nivsarkar M, Kumar GP and Laloraya M (1994) Photophyscial alterations of erythrocyte membrane by 4,5',8‑trimethyl psoralen : Membrane response towards psoralen phototherapy. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 199(3), 1413-1421.
32. Chatterjee S, Laloraya M and Kumar GP (1994) Free radical bombing of soermatozoa in spermatic granuloma: an attempt to prevent autoimmune switch‑on. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 201(1), 472‑477.
33. Laloraya, M.M., Kumar GP and Laloraya, M. (1994) Photochemical reaction sequences of blue light acivated flavins: sensory transduction through free radical messengers. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Intl. 33(3), 543‑551.
34. Jain, S, Thomas, M., Kumar GP & Laloraya, M. (1994) Appearence of homogenious smectic multilamellar microenvironments in biomembranes undergoing superoxide initiated lipid‑peroxidation: lipid dienyl radical accumulation and fludity management in lipid bilayers. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Intl. 33(5), 853-862.
35. Purohit S, Kumar GP, Laloraya M amd Laloraya MM (1994) Involvement of superoxide radical in signal transduction regulating stomatal movements. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 205(1), 30-37.
36. Hajela K, kayestha R and Kumar GP (1994) Carbohydrate-induced modulation of cell membrane. 1. Interaction of sialic acid with peripheral blood lymphocytes: a spin label study. FEBS Lett. 354, 217-219.
37. Thomas M, Jain S, Kumar GP and Laloraya M (1995) Variation in reactive sulphydryl distribution in mouse uterus in early pregnancy. Acta Histochem. Cytochem. 28(3), 227-230.
38. Laloraya M, Kopergaokar S, Jain S, Thomas M and Kumar GP (1996) Estrogen surge: a regulatory switch for superoxide radical generation at implantation. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. 39(5), 933-940.
39. Nivsarkar M, Kumar GP and Laloraya M (1996) Metal binding and resultant loss of phototoxicity of alpha-terthienyl: metal detoxification versus alpha-terthienyl inactivation. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 56, 183-189.
40. Kumar GP, Laloraya M and Koide SS (1996) Characterization of a uterine luminal fluid protein ULF-250 using N-terminal microsequencing and RT-PCR identify a novel estrogen-regulated gene in the rat uterus. FEBS Letters 399, 33-36.
41. Chatterjee S, Laloraya M and Kumar GP (1997) Free radical induced liquefaction of ejaculated human semen: A new dimension in semen biochemistry. Arch. Androl. 38, 107-111.
42. Negishi H, Kumar GP, Laloraya M and Koide SS (1997) Neutralization of pregnancy preventing activity of cabergoline, a dopamine agonist, with progesterone. Theriogenology 48, 241-246.
43. Thomas M, Jain S, Kumar GP and Laloraya M (1997) Superoxide causes hatching of mouse blastocysts in vitro and a possibility of blastocyst generated superoxide causing hatching in vivo. J. Cell Sci. 110, 1597-1602.
44. Laloraya M, Thomas M, Jain S, Jafri F and Kumar GP (1997) Activity profile of placental superoxide-superoxide dismutase system in pregnant mice and its possible relation with placental steroidogenesis. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. 42(5), 983-990.
45. Chatterjee S, Purohit SB, Laloraya M and Kumar GP (1997) Vasectomy-induced SOD inactivation in the male reproductive tract of rat : A prerequisite for spermatic granuloma formation. Urologia Internationalis 645, 59 (1), 23-25.
46. Chatterjee S, Laloraya M and Kumar GP (1997) Exessively exposed surface thiol of mouse spermatozoa after vasectomy with special reference to free radical‑membrane perturbation : A possible cause of postvasectomy infertility. Arch. Androl. 000, 00-00.
47. Chatterjee S, Laloraya M and Kumar GP (1997) Superoxide anion radical mediated dissection of rat sperm. An in vitro study. Arch. Androl. 39, 101-104.
48. Chatterjee S, Reddy LK, Laloraya M and Kumar GP (1997) Free radical mediated sperm load managment in the vagina of rat. Arch. Androl. 39, 127-133.
49. Prakash P, Kumar GP, Laloraya M, Javeri T and Parihar MS (1997) Superoxide anion radical production as a cadmium-mediated mechanism of toxicity in avian thyroid: an electron spin resonance study by spin trapping. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 118C(1), 89-95.
50. Singh PP, Kumar GP and Laloraya M (1997) Regulation of superoxide anion radical-superroxide dismutase system in the avian thyroid by TSH with reference to thyroid hormonogenesis. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 239 (1), 212-216.
51. Kumar GP and Laloraya M (1997) Contraception In: Oxidative stress in male infertility (Ochsendorf FR and Fuchs J, eds.), Gardez! Verlag, St. Augustin, Germany, pp. 185-196.
52. Prakash P, Laloraya M and Kumar GP (1998) Starvation-induced hypothyroidism involves perturbations in thyroid superoxide-SOD system in pigeons. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Int. 45(1), 73-83.
53. Purohit SB, Laloraya M and Kumar GP (1998) Acrosome reaction inducers impose alterations in repulsive strain and hydration barrier in human sperm membranes. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Intl. 45(2), 227-235.
54. Prakash P, Kumar GP, Laloraya M, Hemnani T and Parihar MS (1998) Superoxide anion radical generation as a temperature stress response in the gills of fresh water catfish Heteropneustes fossilis: role in mucus exudation under elevated temperature. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Endocrinol. 119(2), 211-216.
55. Purohit SB, Laloraya M and Kumar GP (1998) Bicarbonate-dependent lipid ordering and protein aggregation are part of non-genomic action of progesterone on capacitated spermatozoa. J. Androl. 19(5), 608-18.
56. Chopra RK, Dalal M, Kumar GP and Laloraya M (1998) A genetic system involving superoxide causes F-1 necrosis in wheat (T. aestivum L.) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 248(3), 712-715.
57. Prakash P, Laloraya M and Kumar GP (1998) Influence of a melatonin implant on the free radical load in avian thyroid and its relation with thyroid hormonogenesis. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Intl. 46(6), 1249-1258.
58. Purohit SB, Laloraya M and Kumar GP (1999) Role of ions and ion-channels in capacitation and acrosome reaction of spermatozoa. Asian J. Androl. 1(3), 95-107.
59. Jain S, Saxena D, Kumar GP and Koide SS and Laloraya M (1999) Effect of estradiol and selected antiestrogens onn pro- and anti-oxidant pathways in mammalian uterus. Contraception 60, 111-118.
60. Agnihotri S, Purohit SB, Laloraya M and Kumar GP (1999) Regional heterogeneity in intracellular distribution of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide within the sperm and its relation to sperm development Arch. Androl. 43, 113-121.
61. Laloraya MM, Kumar CK, Kumar GP Laloraya M and (1999) Active oxygen species in blue light mediated signal transduction in coleoptile tips. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 256(2), 293-298.
62. Jain S, Saxena D, Kumar GP and Laloraya M (2000) NADPH dependent superoxide generation in the ovary and uterus of mice during estrus cycle and early pregnancy. Life Sci. 66, 1139-1146.
63. Purohit SB, Saxena D, Laloraya M and Kumar GP (2000) Altered molecular dynamics and antioxidant status in the spermatozoa in a testosterone induced oligozoospermia model. Mol Reprod. Dev. 55(3), 316-325.
64. Saxena D, Purohit S.B., Kumar GP and Laloraya M. (2000) Increased appearance of inducible nitric oxide synthase in the uterus and embryo at implantation. Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry 4(4), 384-391.
65. Chatterjee, S. Laloraya, M. and Kumar GP (2001) Regional Variations in Thiol Distribution Pattern and Superoxide Dismutase Activity of the Male Reproductive Tract of the Rat Modulate the Transport of Spermatozoa through the Epididymis and Vas deferens. Urologia Int. 66(2), 100-104.
66. Kumar GP, Malini Laloraya, Cong-Yi Wang, Quin-Guo Ruan, Abdoreza Davoodi-Semiromi, Kuo-Jang Kao, and Jing-Xiong She (2001) The Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) Is a DNA-binding Protein J. Biol. Chem., Vol. 276, Issue 44, 41357-41364.
67. Chatterjee S, Rahman MM, Laloraya M, Kumar GP (2001) Sperm disposal system in spermatic granuloma: a link with superoxide radicals. Int. J Androl. 24(5):278-83.
68. Kumar GP, Laloraya M and She JX (2002) Population genetics and functions of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) Endocrinol. Metabol. Clinics of North America. 31(2), 321-338
69. Wang CY, Shi JD, Yang P, Kumar GP, Li QZ, Run QG, Su YC, Scott HS, Kao KJ, She JX. (2003) Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel gene family of four ancient conserved domain proteins (ACDP). Gene. 306, 37-44.
70. Davoodi-Semiromi R, Laloraya M, Kumar GP, Purohit SB, Jha RK and She JX (2004) A mutant Stat5b with weaker DNA binding affinity defines a key defective pathway in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. J. Biol. Chem. 279(12):11553-61.
71. Shoeb M, Laloraya M and Kumar GP (2004) Formation and dynamic alterations of horizontal microdomains in sperm membranes during progesterone-induced acrosome reaction. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 315(3), 763-770.
72. Purohit SB, Brahmaraju M, Palta A, Shukla S, Laloraya M and Kumar GP (2004) Impaired E-cadherin expression in human spermatozoa in a male factor infertility subset signifies E-cadherin-mediated adhesion mechanisms operative in sperm-oolemma interactions. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 316(3), 903-909.
73. Nautiyal J, Laloraya M and Kumar GP (2004) 17β-estradiol induces nuclear translocation of Crk-L at the window of embryo implantation. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 318(1):103-12.
74. Brahmaraju M, Shoeb M, Laloraya M and Kumar GP (2004) Spatio-temporal organization of Vam6P and SNAP on mouse spermatozoa and their involvement in sperm-zona pellucida interactions. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 318(1):148-55.
75. Chandrakuntal K, Kumar GP, Laloraya M, Laloraya MM (2004) Direct involvement of hydrogen peroxide in curvature of wheat coleoptile in blue-light treated and dark-grown coleoptiles. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 319, 1190-1196.
76. Nautiyal J, Kumar GP and Laloraya M (2004) Mifepristone (Ru486) antagonizes Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-3 downregulation at early mouse pregnancy revealing immunomodulatory events in Ru486 induced abortion. Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. 51, 1-12.
77. Purohit SB, Kumar GP, Laloraya M and She JX (2005) Mapping the DNA-binding and dimerization domains of the autoimmune regulator (AIRE) protein using deletion constructs. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 327, 939-944.
78. Shukla S, Jha RK, Laloraya M and Kumar GP (2005) Identification of non-mitochondrial NADPH oxidase and the spatio-temporal organization of its components in mouse spermatozoa. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 331(2), 476-483.
79. Laloraya M, Davoodi-Semiromi A, Kumar GP, McDuffie M, and She J-X (2006) Impaired Crkl expression contributes to the defective DNA binding of Stat5b in Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mice. DIABETES 55 (3), 734-741.
80.Chandrakuntal K, Thomas NM, Kumar GP, Laloraya M and Laloraya MM (2006) Fluorescence resonance energy transfer between polyphenolic compounds and riboflavin indicates a possible accessory photoreceptor function for some polyphenolic compounds. Photochem. Photobiol. 82(5), 1358-1364.
81. Jha RK, Titus, S, Saxena D, Laloraya M and Kumar GP (2006) Profiling of E-cadherin, beta-catenin and calcium in embryo-uterine interactions at implantation. FEBS Lett. 580(24), 5653-5660.
82. Selot R, Kumar V, Shukla S, Chandrakuntal K, Brahmaraju M, Dandin SB, Laloraya M and Kumar PG (2007) Identification of a soluble NADPH oxidoreductase (BmNOX) with antiviral activities in the gut juice of Bombyx mori. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 71(1), 200-205.
83. Chandran U, Laloraya M and Kumar PG (2007) Identification of testis-expressed cell cycle regulating proteins with special reference to meiosis. J. Endocrinol. Reprod. 11(1), 45-48.
84. Mohan JJ, Jha RK, Kumar PG, Dharmarajan AM and Laloraya M (2007) Secreted Frizzle-Related Protein (sFRP4) can abrogate pregnancy – a new dimension in its biological role J. Endocrinol. Reprod. 11(1), 41-44.
85. Purohit S, Laloraya M and Kumar PG (2008) Distribution of N- and O-linked oligosaccharides on surface of spermatozoa from normal and infertile subjects. Andrologia 39, 1-6.
86. Nautiyal J, Chourasia D, Kumar GP and Laloraya M (200X) 17- ß-estradiol nuclear translocation of Stat-5a and Stat-5b at the window of implantation in the uteri of pregnant mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. (under communication)
87. Laloraya M, Kumar GP and Koide SS (200X) 17ß estradiol sensitive expression of p53 in the uterus indicates the occurrence of apoptosis in the peri-implantation uterus. FEBS Lett. (under communication).
1. ABI34706 cyclin-like protein 1 [Mus musculus] gi|115279638|gb|ABI34706.2|
2. AAB03324 p53 transformation associated protein gi|1399880|gb|AAB03324.1|
3. AAB03323 p53 cellular tumor antigen gi|1399878|gb|AAB03323.1|
4. ABK30932 NADPH oxidoreductase [Bombyx mori] gi|116876143|gb|ABK30932.1|
5. NP_035619 signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B [Mus musculus] gi|31543780|ref|NP_035619.2|
6. AAL05590 signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b [Mus musculus] gi|21654875|gb|AAL05590.1|
7. AAK74074 signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B [Mus musculus] gi|21654825|gb|AAK74074.1|
8. AAK97793 signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B [Mus musculus] gi|21654907|gb|AAK97793.1|
9. AAK97792 signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B [Mus musculus] gi|21654905|gb|AAK97792.1|
10. AAK97791 signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B [Mus musculus] gi|21654903|gb|AAK97791.1|
11. AAC13319 estrous-specific protein [Rattus norvegicus] gi|1279988|gb|AAC13319.1|
12. AAA96527 implantin [Mus musculus] gi|1256826|gb|AAA96527.1|
13. NP_035057 nitric oxide synthase 2, inducible, macrophage [Mus musculus] gi|6754872|ref|NP_035057.1|
14. NP_004351 cadherin 1, type 1 preproprotein [Homo sapiens] gi|4757960|ref|NP_004351.1|
15. NP_035006 neutrophil cytosolic factor 1 [Mus musculus] gi|40254580|ref|NP_035006.2|
16. NP_031833 cytochrome b-245, beta polypeptide [Mus musculus] gi|31542440|ref|NP_031833.2|
17. NP_849182 vacuolar protein sorting 39 isoform 2 [Mus musculus] gi|30578384|ref|NP_849182.1|
18. NP_031832 cytochrome b-245, alpha polypeptide [Mus musculus] gi|22094077|ref|NP_031832.1|
19. NP_035007 neutrophil cytosolic factor 2 [Mus musculus] gi|6754798|ref|NP_035007.1|
20. NP_032703 neutrophil cytosolic factor 4 [Mus musculus] gi|6679022|ref|NP_032703.1|
21. Q9Z0E3 Autoimmune regulator (Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy protein homolog) (APECED protein homolog) gi|22256596|sp|Q9Z0E3|AIRE_MOUSE
22. NP_000649 autoimmune regulator AIRE isoform 2 [Homo sapiens] gi|4557293|ref|NP_000649.1|
23. NP_000374 autoimmune regulator AIRE isoform 1 [Homo sapiens] gi|4557291|ref|NP_000374.1|
24. O43918 Autoimmune regulator (Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy candidiasis ectodermal dystrophy protein) (APECED protein) gi|3334119|sp|O43918|AIRE_HUMAN
25. P42232 Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B gi|1174465|sp|P42232|STA5B_MOUSE
26. NP_038682 chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 7 [Mus musculus] gi|7305463|ref|NP_038682.1|
27. NP_671495 vacuolar protein sorting 39 isoform 1 [Mus musculus] gi|22164794|ref|NP_671495.1|
28. P83891 Implantin gi|50400835|sp|P83891|IMPL_MOUSE
29. P83853 Vam6-like protein gi|46396754|sp|P83853|VAM6L_MOUSE
30. P83854 Putative G-protein coupled receptor gi|46395688|sp|P83854|GPCR_MOUSE
31. P84517 Putative NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 4-like protein gi|62900716|sp|P84517|NU4ML_BOMMO
32. A59495 Vesicle associated membrane protein - Mus musculus gi|60729662|pir||A59495
33. P83855 Putative sperm adenylate cyclase gi|46395689|sp|P83855|ACLP_MOUSE
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